Montane Forest

Montane forest is not dominated by a single family of trees; oaks, laurels, myrtles, some conifers, and many other families are common. The trees typically lack buttresses and reach 12-30 m in height. This habitat extends from 700 m up to 1000 m on small, low-lying islands, but on Luzon it typically extends from about 900 m up to about 1600 m, and on Mindanao from 1400 m to as much as about 2300 m. Vines are common, with vines of the palm genus Freycinetia often abundant. Pitcher plants, ferns, and orchids often grow on the trees in abundance; some moss grows on tree trunks and exposed roots. Ferns and leaf litter cover the ground, and some humus is nearly always present. Ants and termites are nearly absent, but earthworms are common. Rainfall in montane forest is typically two to three meters per year, and dry seasons are shorter and less severe than in the lowlands. Daily high temperatures typically range from 21 to 26° C, with the annual averagedecreasing steadily with increasing elevation.